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Current IssueAugust 22, 2014
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WC&P is proud to offer this comprehensive glossary to our readers and website visitors. This living document is intended to serve as an easy-to-use reference source for information on the POU/POE water treatment industry. 

 

Any suggestions or input that would further enhance or expand the glossary are strongly encouraged.

 

We would like to formally thank and credit such organizations as WQA, AWWA, WEF, Lenntech and other web glossary sources for providing some of the basis and background of this compendium.

Hardness

A characteristic of natural water due to the presence of dissolved calcium and magnesium; water hardness is responsible for most scale formation in pipes and water heaters, and forms insoluble "curd" when it reacts with soaps. Hardness is usually expressed in grains per gallon, parts per million, or milligrams per liter, all as calcium carbonate equivalent. Temporary hardness, caused by the presence of magnesium of calcium bicarbonate, is so called because it may be removed by boiling the water to convert the bicarbonates to the insoluble carbonates. Calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and the chlorides of these two metals cause permanent hardness.