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Water softening, the reduction of calcium and magnesium from water to lower total hardness, is achieved through the ion exchange process, resulting in significant savings on soap and laundry products as well as increased longevity of appliances (hot water heaters, dishwashers, washing machines) due to reduction of lime scale formation. The process employs a variety of ion exchange resins, depending on the application.
- Softener Efficiency — It’s Not Just about the Salt! by C.F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud
- Water Softener Performance Testing by Mark T. Unger
- Softened Water Benefits Study: New Reports Related to Detergent and More Energy Savings by Pauli Undesser
- Softening Alternatives by C.F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud
- It’s Tough Being a Resin Bead by Matthew Wirth
Reverse osmosis uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate and remove dissolved solids, organics, pyrogens, sub-micron colloidal matter, viruses and bacteria from water. It is the only treatment process capable of removing a large number of pharmaceutical and personal care product contaminants found in modern day water sources. RO is often used in conjunction with other filtration methods to ensure purity of the water source.
- Reverse Osmosis Technology — Not Just for Water Purification by Peter S. Cartwright, PE
- A Primer on RO Application: Wastewater Concentration Calculations by Tanya Lubner, PhD
- A Primer: Reverse Osmosis by Ryan Lessing
- Low-Energy (LE) RO Membranes by Michael Kim
- Pretreatment Technologies for Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration by Peter S. Cartwright, PE
Filtration, either natural or mechanical, serves as an initial barrier to contaminated water. Methods of filtration can be traced back to the earliest of human recordkeeping, most notably with sand filtration employed as one of the first viable methods. Over time, different media have evolved to become successful contaminant removal products, including multiple types of carbon-based products, zeolites, sphagnum and many others.
- Principles of Filtration: How do Filters Filter Anyway? by Larry Henke
- Sustainable Decentralized Water Treatment for Rural and Developing Communities Using Locally Generated Biochar Adsorbents by Josh Kearns, MS
- Reduction of Chloramines in Drinking Water Using Catalytic Carbon by Vivekanand Gaur, PhD
- Catalytic Activated Carbons for Dechlorination and Dechloramination: Do they really work and, if so, how? by Gary Hatch, PhD
- Activated Carbon: Modern Advances for an Ancient Technology by Jeffrey A. Trogolo, PhD
Ion exchange is the process by which hardness ions (calcium and magnesium) are exchanged as a means of removal. It is the replacement of undesirable ions with a certain charge by desirable ions of the same charge in a solution, by an ion-permeable absorbent. These resins may be ion-specific, which can target contaminants such as nitrate, sulfate, uranium, arsenic, tannin and many others.
- Hard to Lather, Easy to Fix by Greg Reyneke
- A Brief History of Ion Exchange Water Treatment by Gary Battenberg
- How Fast Can We Run? Ion Exchange Reaction Zones by Matthew Wirth
- Ion Exchange Reactions, A Review by C.F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud
- High-Performance Nitrate Removal Ion Exchange System by Filip Rochette